Transgressive Sacrality in Tantric Buddhism

Transgressive Sacrality in Tantric Buddhism

Is Islam religion of warriors? (Arguments & counter-arguments)

Is Islam religion of warriors? (Arguments & counter-arguments)

Muslim Puritans: Reformist Psychology in Southeast Asian Islam

Muslim Puritans, By: James L. Peacock (Review and Summary)

Promiscuous Teleological Reasoning

Promiscuous Teleological Reasoning

Endo-Cannibalism in Malayo-Polynesian

In the early twentieth century the French sociologist Robert Hertz published an influential essay under the title of “A Contribution to the Study of the Collective Representation of Death.” Hertz’s primary interest was in the quite widespread Malayo-Polynesian practice of double burial, whereby corpses were not immediately taken to a final resting place but instead […]

Why do men woo and women choose?

According to neo-Darwinian synthesis, evolutionary success is defined largely in terms of fecundity, or reproductive success, not just survival. It is the replication of the gene that matters most, not the organism. If reproductive success through genetic replication is the ultimate goal of evolution, then resource acquisition can be seen as merely a means to […]

Weikza and sexual intercourse with fruits

As in the case of European alchemy, Burmese alchemy too includes techniques for the transmutation of base metals into gold. Of much greater importance in Burmese alchemy, however, are the goals of achieving magical power, especially of immortality. These powers are acquired by means of the alchemic stone whose absolute purification and refinement is the […]

Relationship between child training and supernaturals (gods and ghosts)

Relationship between child training and supernaturals (gods and ghosts)

Sacred Places and Pilgrimage (Paper review)

Sacred Places and Pilgrimage (Paper review)

Jinn in Islamic texts and culture

Jinn in Islamic texts and culture

Weber’s views on religious interaction in the world (Mysticism and Asceticism)

Weber’s views on religious interaction in the world (Mysticism and Asceticism)

Sufism through slide-show

Sufism through slide-show

Self-effacing behavior of Thai women

…Buddhadasa Bhikkhu’s proposal for a dhammic socialism offers a case in point. His diagnosis of the root cause of the social problems that Thailand faces is certainly correct at the most fundamental level. Not only Thailand’s, but all humanity’s troubles are rooted in our “me” and “mine” ways of thinking. From this it follows that […]

Feminists’ arguments and religious studies

Introduction This essay includes considerations of feminism both as academic method, i.e. the women studies perspective, and as social vision, i.e. the perspective of feminist philosophy. Though the values and insights of these two perspectives are intertwined and closely linked, they are not identical. The women studies perspective is less radical, claiming only that scholars […]

Religion, faith, and theology

The starting point for clarifications is a general observation about human existence-namely, that to be human at all is both to live by faith and to seek understanding. For our immediate purpose, which is to clarify what is properly meant by “religion,” it is the first part of this observation that is important. The faith to […]

And a message on the way

Some day I will come and bring a message. Into veins I will cast light, And call out, “O you whose baskets are full of dreams!”      I have brought you an apple, the red apple of the Sun.   I will come to offer the beggar a lilac flower. I will give the […]

Love, lovers, and non-lovers

Summarized from the book “Phaedrus” by Plato, translated by: B. Jowett Introduction The Phaedrus is closely connected with the Symposium, and may be regarded either as introducing or following it. The two Dialogues together contain the whole philosophy of Plato on the nature of love, which in the Republic and in the later writings of […]

Feminist Ethics & Feminist Ethicists

Introduction Feminist Ethics is an attempt to revise, reformulate, or rethink traditional ethics to the extent it depreciates or devalues women’s moral experience. Feminist philosopher Alison Jaggar faults traditional ethics for letting women down in five related ways. First, it shows less concern for women’s as opposed to men’s issues and interests. Second, traditional ethics views […]

New Religious Movements (NRMs), The New Age & New Directions

New Religious Movements (NRMs), The New Age & New Directions

Shunyata in Mahayana Buddhism

Of all Buddhist doctrines, possibly the most difficult — and misunderstood — is shunyata. Often translated as “emptiness,” shunyata is at the heart of all Mahayana Buddhist teaching. It is often misunderstood to mean that nothing exists. This is not so. Instead, it tells us that there is existence, but that phenomena are empty of […]

The Buddhism’s concept of non-self (Anatta or Anatman)

The Buddhism ’ s concept of non-self (Anatta or Anatman)

Materialism in Indian philosophy

Introduction Indian materialism is not so well known, nor is it known in all its details at home or abroad as are other metaphysical doctrines which originated in India. This is mainly due to the fact that the original literature related to materialistic metaphysics has been lost beyond recovery, and that the critical references to […]

Speeches in honor of Love

Summarized from the book “SYMPOSIUM” by Plato, translated by: B. Jowett Introduction It is claimed that in Symposium there are more than the author himself knew. The Symposium of Plato is a work of his character, and can with difficulty be rendered in any words but the writer’s own. There are so many half-lights and […]

Zen state of consciousness

 Zen masters’ advice to reach Zen state of consciousness (one’s own final abode) There are occasions in the study of Zen in which the monk stays with the master for years but no enlightenment come over him despite following the advice of his master faithfully. After many weeks of meditation he cannot come to any […]

Attar of Neishabur

Teaching material: “Attar of Neishabur”

New Age Movement (NAM) in brief

          First: a new religious language. The religious metaphors of the Judeo-Christian tradition developed in a patriarchal society and show the limitations of that particular experience. The Father God metaphor, for example, while suggesting paternal care, also evokes absolute power, patriarchal authority, harsh punishment, and other related ideas which are now […]

Yoga: Hindus and Christians’ stance

Yoga in the Modern World The ground for its introduction to the West was laid in 1893, with the arrival from India of Swami Vivekananda, who gained notoriety when he represented Hinduism at the world Parliament of Religions in Chicago. Soon after, the West’s awareness of Indian philosophy grew, through the work of such groups […]

Yoga school in Indian philosophy

Yoga School in Indian philosophy

Hindu’s belief in the law of Karma

The law of Karma: Karma is a concept in Hinduism which explains causality through a system where beneficial effects are derived from past beneficial actions and harmful effects from past harmful actions, creating a system of actions and reactions throughout a soul’s reincarnated lives forming a cycle of rebirth. The causality is said to be […]

4 social classes in Hindus’ beliefs

Varnas (four social classes): Although every Hindu must follow general moral codes, each has individual duties according to his or her own nature. These are called sva-dharma, literally “own duties.” They are regulated by the system of four varnas (social classes). Varna is a Sanskrit word which means color or class. Ancient Hindu literature classified […]

Tour to IRAN through slide show

Tour to IRAN through slide show (presented for Thai friends in Bangkok)

The Quran ch. 12: The story of Joseph

In the name of God, the Gracious, the Merciful. Alif, Lam, Ra. These are the Verses of the Clear Book. We have revealed it an Arabic Quran, so that you may understand. We narrate to you the most accurate history, by revealing to you this Quran. Although, prior to it, you were of the unaware. […]

Saint Augustine on “Time”

What then is time? If no one asks me, I know; if I want to explain it to someone who does ask me, I do not know. Yet I state confidently that I know this: if nothing were passing away, there would be no past time, and if nothing were coming, there would be no […]

Feminist Ethics

        Some recent ethicists claim that ethics are gender dependent as well. Although feminist moral philosophy is not monolithic, Carol Gilligan argues for the contextualization of moral reasoning in her book In a Different Voice. She cites empirical research which demonstrates that women’s moral development is significantly different from that of men’s. Women […]

Artworks: forgeries and artistic value

Introduction We can consider a variety of Philosophical questions about art and art criticism, ranging from questions about the definition of what art is to questions about the aesthetic status of forgeries. Much talk about art by artists, critics and interested spectators is confused and Illogical. Employing philosophical rigour and insisting on clarity of argument […]

What Virtue Ethics is…

 1. Virtue theory Virtue theory is largely based on Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics and as a result is sometimes known as neo-Aristotelianism. Unlike Kantians and utilitarians, who typically concentrate on the rightness or wrongness of particular actions, virtue theorists focus on character and are interested in the individual’s life as a whole. The central question for […]

Christian Ethics

Introduction:  Is morality simply a matter of prejudice or can we give good reason for our moral beliefs? The area of philosophy which deals with such question  is usually known either as ethics or as moral philosophy — both terms will be used interchangeably here. Christian Ethics belongs to duty-based ethical theories. Duty-based ethical theories stress […]

The Existence of God–A Debate

Teaching material: The Existence of God– A debate between Bertrand Russell and F. C. Copleston

God’s Existence: The Gambler’s Argument

Pascal’s Wager The arguments for and against the existence of God that we have examined so far (1, 2, 3, 4, 5) have all been aimed at proving that God does or doesn’t exist. They have all purported to give us knowledge of his or her existence or non-existence. The Gambler’s Argument, which is derived from the writings […]

Theists’ God and the Problem of Evil

 Introduction: Does God exist? This is a fundamental question, one which most of us ask ourselves at some time in our lives. The answer which each of us gives affects not only the way we behave, but also how we understand and interpret the world, and what we expect for the future, If God exists, […]

The First Cause Argument for God’s Existence (Cosmological Argument)

 The First Cause Argument The First Cause Argument, sometimes known as The Cosmological Argument, states that absolutely everything has been caused by something else prior to it: nothing has just sprung into existence without a cause. Because we know that the universe exists, we can safely assume that a whole series of causes and effects […]

The Design Argument for God’s Existence

The Design Argument One of the most frequently used arguments for God’s existence is the design argument, sometimes also known as the Teleological Argument (from the Greek word “telos” which means “purpose”). This states that if we look around us at the natural world we cannot help noticing how everything in it is suited to […]

Aquinas’s Five proofs of God’s existence

The first and more manifest way is the argument from motion. It is certain, and evident to our senses, that in the world some things are in motion. Now whatever is moved is moved by another, for nothing can be moved except it is in potentiality to that towards which it is moved; whereas a […]

Existentialism and Zen Buddhism (Antiknowing schools?!)

Existentialism: Those who adopt an existential posture typically express the conviction that human beings can never be certain of anything beyond the sheer fact of their own existence. What human beings assert that they know is wholly capricious and unreliable. The subjective quality of the process of knowing is seen by the existentialist as inevitable. […]

Intuition, Mysticism, and Revelation

Intuition: The idea of mysticism can be defined as the belief that the most reliable source of knowledge or truth is intuition rather than reason, sense experience, or the scientific method. The mystic maintains that immediate and true knowledge is attained through a direct awareness that does not depend on systematic mental activity or sense impressions. […]

Empiricism in brief

The Search for knowledge that is both absolute and certain has been fervent and continuous. However, since at least the time of Aristotle, there has been a strong epistemological tradition based solely on human experience, not directed toward the possibility of achieving absolute knowledge. This tradition is exemplified in the doctrine of empiricism. Empiricists argue […]

Nyaya school in Indian philosophy

Teaching material (powerpoints): Nyaya school in Indian philosophy

Freedom and Determinism

 Questions to consider: Am I a creature of fate, of gigantic forces beyond my control? Am I a mysterious mixture of body and spirit, part determined and part free? Am I an electronic computer programmed by my environment? Is my feeling of being free to shape my future just an illusion? Is it fair to punish a boy for stealing […]

Natural behaviour & Social behaviour

…Yet on closer examination, one can recognize a significant difference between laws regulating natural behaviour and those regulating social behaviour. The difference between the natural and social orders lies in the fact that  while the former is subject to laws of necessity, the latter is affected by laws of freedom. Things behave in accordance with […]